Predicate Sichuan hottest chilli in the world continues to be a ‘bone of contention’. Guinness Book of World Records recorded Reaper Carolina, scorpion-like tail, became the hottest on Earth in 2013. Bhut Jolokia aka Shifts record ‘chili devil’ northeastern Indian origin who won since 2010.
There are still other chili chili-like Trinidad Moruga Scorpion Blend, 7 Pod Douglah, or Naga Viper. Chili spiciness level is measured by a parameter SHU (Scoville heat units). For comparison, the level of spiciness of cayenne pepper is 50000-100000 SHU, Bhut Jolokia is far less than that reached 1,041,427 SHU. Spicy!
Still related to the chili, the scientists successfully sequenced the genome (sequencing) pepper plants, which reveals that the gene responsible for the level of spiciness.
Scientists are searching for the world’s hottest chili
The new genome, which is described in detail in the scientific journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, is believed to pave the way for scientific engineering that produces more spicy chili, which can make the mouth stiff.
“These findings will provide the basis of further development and manufacture molecular trigger related research agronomic traits chili, also helps farmers create a new type of molecular biology techniques,” said one of the authors of the study, Cheng Qin, researchers from Sichuan Agricultural University in China, as quoted from the site science LiveScience, Tuesday (03/04/2014).
History of Chili
Chili-cabaian first time Native Americans cultivated in the tropical forests of South America, approximately 8,000 years ago from a wild variants like Chiltepin annuum (variant glabriusculum). The chili, which became part of the family that includes tomatoes and potatoes are then spread to the New World (New World) after Columbus arrived in America.
After hundreds of years bred, chili current version appears in many shapes, colors, and flavors. From the bland chili Anaheim to Scotch bonnet bite. More than 34.6 million tons of peppers harvested in 2011.
In recent years, fans of chili focusing on capsaicin – the chemical that makes chili has a spicy flavor. A number of results, including Carolina Reaper danTrinidad foam Moruga Scorpion 100 thousand times more spicy than pimento peppers, for example. But, be careful, because the researchers calculate the 2.7 or 1.2 kg of chili like that could kill a human.
To learn more chili, Qin and colleagues cultivated chili genome sequence at their institution, called Zunla-1 and a number of other wild chili.
The team found, chili deviate from tomatoes and potatoes about 36 million years ago. In addition, approximately 81 percent of the plant consists of transposons, or so-called ‘jumping genes’ that can be moved to another place in the genome. These genes included some 300,000 years ago.
In addition, the team observed the genomes of 18 cultivated pepper plant, to compare the differences between wild and cultivated varieties. The team found that a number of genes linked to how long the seeds remain active, pest resistance, and long age.
The team also identified genetic component behind the spicy flavor. Apparently, the key genes can be duplicated in a different number – to make the capsaicin content of less or more. Varieties are more bland, according to scientists, experiencing spicy flavor-producing gene deletion.
The findings of the scientists suggest two new ways replicates the chili – chili interbreed with genes that have a lot of spicy. “Or with genetically engineered so that copies of the gene containing chili more spicy producers,” said Qin.